01 August 2009

Some things never change: 1300-1600

c.1300. The Romani Aresajipe; the arrival of Roma in Europe.

c.1300. Romani groups begin to be enslaved in southeast Europe.

1445. Prince Vlad Dracul of Wallachia transports some 12,000 persons "who looked like Egyptians" from Bulgaria for slave labour.

1471. 17,000 Roma are transported into Moldavia by Stephan the Great for slave labour.

1496-1498. The Reichstag (parliament) in Landau and Freiburg declares Roma traitors to the Christian countries, spies in the pay of the Turks, and carriers of the plague.

1499. Medina del Campo in Spain orders Gitanos to find a trade and master, cease travelling with other Gitanos, all within sixty days. Punishment for failure to obey is 100 lashes and banishment. Repeat offences are punished by amputation of ears, sixty days in chains, and banishment. Third-time offenders become the slaves of those who capture them.

1500. At the request of Maximilian I, the Augsburg Reichstag declares Roma traitors to the Christian countries, and accuses them of witchcraft, kidnapping of children, and banditry.

1510. Roma are prohibited by the Grand Council of France from residence. The punishment is banishment. A second offence results in hanging.

1512. Roma are first recorded in Sweden on 29 September. They are welcomed by the city and given lodging and money for their stay. A few years later, King Gustav Vasa (1521-1560), suspects that the Roma are spies and orders that they be driven out from the country.

1525. Charles V issues an edict in Holland ordering all those that call themselves Egyptians to leave the country within two days.

1530. The first law expelling Gypsies from England is introduced. Henry VIII forbids the transportation of Gypsies into England. The fine is forty pounds for ship's owner or captain.
The Gypsy passengers are punished by hanging.

1536. The first anti-Gypsy laws are passed in Denmark.

1538. Deportation of Roma in Portugal to colonies begins.

1540. Gypsies are allowed to live under their own laws in Scotland. 1541. The first anti-Gypsy laws are passed in Scotland.

1547. Edward VI of England institutes law requiring that Gypsies be seized and "branded with a 'V' on their breast, and then enslaved for two years." If escapees are caught they will be branded with an "S" and made slaves for life.

In the reign of Philip and Mary, an Act is passed which decrees that that the death penalty shall be imposed for being a Gypsy, or anyone who "shall become of the fellowship or company of Egyptians."

1562. An Act is passed in England "for further punishment of Vagabonds, calling themselves Egyptians." Any Gypsy born in England and Wales is not compelled to leave the country if they quit their idle and ungodly life and company. All others should suffer death and loss of lands and goods.

1568. Pope Pius V orders the expulsion of all Roma from the domain of the Roman Catholic Church.

1573. Gypsies in Scotland are ordered to leave the country or settle down.

1578. At the General Warsaw Seym, King Stephen Báthory pronounces an edict threatening sanctions against anyone who harbours Roma on their lands. They are punished as accomplices of outlaws.

1589. In Denmark, the death penalty is ordered for any Roma not leaving the country.

Information in this post is taken from the timeline of Romani history on Patrin


Unknown said...

And its' also Swiss National Day :)

Interesting time line...

Unknown said...

I knew some parts of this, but I haven't seen a detailed list like that before.
Thanks for sharing!

jams o donnell said...

It is horrifying Expat Traveller. Sadly nothing changes much

More to come Nicole